2 April 2012
Adverbs are the most complicated part of speech to understand. All adverbs and adverbials modify other elements in sentences.
Adverbs and adverbials
Adverbs and adverbials are essentially the same thing. We use the term adverbial when referring to a group of words and adverb when talking about a single word. E.g.,
Yesterday, we saw Helen. ADVERB
The day before, we saw Helen. ADVERBIAL
In this text I shall use adverbial to cover both adverbs and adverbials.
Defining an adverbial
In grammar an adverbial is word or group of words (phrase, clause) which modifies or tells us something about the sentence, the verb, adjectives, prepositions or other adverbials. Look at the examples below:
Danny speaks well. (telling us more about the verb)
She is quite stupid. (telling us more about the adjective stupid)
Two levels of adverbials
Adverbials operate at two levels: those that are a sentence element, as in the example below:
Lorna ate breakfast yesterday. (SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT + ADVERBIAL)
and those that are contained within sentence elements, as in the following example,
A very tall man entered the shop. (SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT)
In the above example the adverbial is contained within the subject.
Types of adverbials which form sentence elements
Adverbials which form a sentence element in their own right fall into four classes
(i) adverbial complements: these are adverbials that render a sentence ungrammatical and meaningless if removed, e.g.
John is in the park.
(ii) adverbial adjuncts: these are part of the core meaning of the sentence, but if omitted still leave a meaningful sentence, e.g.
John helped me with my homework.
(iii) adverbial conjuncts: these link two sentences together.
John helped me. I was, therefore, able to do my homework.
(iv) adverbial disjuncts: these make comments on the of the meaning of the rest of the sentence.
Surprisingly, he passed all of his exams.
Types of adverbials which are within sentence elements
Adverbials within sentence elements fall into four classes:
(i) verb modifying:
He jumped up. (within the verb phrase)
(ii) adjective modifying:
A very heavy bag. (within a noun phrase)
He is rather ill. (within a predicate)
(iii) adverb modifying:
She ate her food exceedingly quickly. (within a sentence adverbial)
(iv) preposition modifying:
She sat very near the door. (within a sentence adverbial)
1 April 2012
Britain has a vast and growing web of laws to restrict individual freedom and action by civic organisations. State surveillance is mushrooming. Police and other law enforcement agencies are inadequately held to account by political and judicial authorities, and within limits enjoy almost a free hand. Imprisonment and other sanctions are often unduly severe.
While Britain falls short of the standards expected in a liberal democracy, it is not a police state. First, it is still possible to form organisations and ‘speak out’ as my posting of this comment shows; and neither are the courts or political authorities under police control.
It’s better to use language carefully because when we actually live in a police state we will have cried wolf. Using the expression "police state" to describe what exists today devalues language. That may be no comfort to the increasing list of victims of state repression. Yet facts and emotions are separate things.